The basis of the process - the water evaporates from the surface of the water. Evaporation achieved in various ways - by heating water, a vacuum over the water, etc.
On Earth, the amount of fresh water is less than 1% of the total. Mankind would have long exhausted all stocks of water suitable for drinking, if not for the water cycle. As it turns out the world clean water? All salt water purification process of the oceans takes place in several stages:
Improved and reduced process cycle natural people called distillation. Distilling water - natural, environmentally friendly process for producing the most pure water. The distiller there are processes similar to the water cycle in nature:
Many peoples receive purified water using various filters - filter jugs (from carbon cartridge), multiple reverse osmosis system, as well as using other methods of purification. For cleaning heavily contaminated water, health conscious person has a unique solution - the distiller.
Any water treatment system by evaporation (distillation) more effectively purifies water from a variety of impurities in comparison with any carbon filter systems or reverse osmosis systems. Reverse osmosis systems and carbon filters are trying to separate the impurities from the water distiller also separates pure water from contaminated.
There are many different water purification systems, and every man determines that it is suitable for family, office, production. Each person has their own requirements for the quality of drinking water, which are formed, in most cases, advertising. The person taking care of his family's health should choose distilled water is the best option of all. Myths that this water leaches calcium from the bones and nourishes the body with useful substances invented filter manufacturers and unfounded. All nutrients, salts, metals and minerals a person metabolizes food, water their number is negligible. Many beverage manufacturers use distilled water, which helps preserve the taste and purity. In the US and Europe are very common home, office and other distillers, water from which is used for drinking and cooking.
The largest producers of bottled water using purified tap water filters. Every year there is plenty of poisoning low-quality bottled water containing benzene, coliform, microbes dugie.
Using distilled water, you can not only take care of their health, family health, but also good to save money, because the cost of electricity in Ukraine and Russia allows to obtain clean water at a low price that can not be compared with any filter and bottled water of any brand. In addition, you can be sure that it is really clean water, as distiller removes the maximum amount of impurities, no matter how much you have it running. Distiller does not require expensive replacement cartridges and there is no possibility of contaminants entering and viruses due to prolonged use or breakage of the filter element in reverse osmosis systems and carbon filters.
The most effective method of water purification in the world and the United States recognized the distillation method. Widespread use of distillation water purification systems also contributes to the ability to get clean water from any source: municipal water systems, wells, open reservoirs. The distillation process, which is implemented in industrial plants, is completely analogous to the natural process of water cycle (evaporation, condensation, water harvesting in the form of precipitation). In the evaporation of the water leaves all the impurities that it may contain. No other cleaning method does not allow such qualities as natural processes. The purity of the water resulting from the distillation is constantly recognized, which has the highest quality. In addition, distillation is the only effective means of elimination of microbiological contamination of water. Many parasites have a very good protection against the effects of chlorine and distillation is the only non-chemical and effective way to get rid of the infection.
During distillation, the water is heated in a special chamber to boil. The process of long boiling kills all bacteria and viruses that might be contained in the water. Steam being of lighter possible impurities rises, leaving particles "do not water." To eliminate contact with micro-drops of distilled water reservoir is not used a special system of discharging vapor, which then enters the heat exchanger for cooling and condensation. In practice, today became widespread distillation installation in the industry that use or vapor compression technology, or consisting of several successive chambers that allow multiple reduce the cost of access to clean water by using heat of steam to heat the incoming water again.
Options specific water treatment system in the actual production depends on many parameters, such as source of raw water and its chemical composition, and performance requirements for purified water. If we look at the water treatment system based on the distiller, then it must be preceded by the removal of organic matter, which cope well with activated carbon filters, and installation of the water softener. Water softening installation, implement the process of replacing the calcium and magnesium ions and sodium ions have a higher performance. It should be noted that the installation of water softeners are equipped with 2 tanks, which allows one of the tanks regenerated when the other performs water softening. During the entire process of managing the flow of water and the installation status of the following automated control unit, which eliminates the ingress of impurities hard distiller. The absence of rigid components reduces the formation of deposits in the distillation installation, easy maintenance and repeatedly extends the life of the equipment. Depending on the source, origin of the water, the water treatment system may be preceded by filters remove large suspended impurities. Depending on the method of storage of the purified water and the purpose of its use, the output system can be used various installations of disinfection, such as ozone treatment or UV treatment. Perhaps I am repeating myself, but I want to emphasize that the development of water treatment system should be based on clear terms of reference and chemical analysis of raw water must be its foundation.
What happens in the process of distillation (for simplicity we take boiling distillation)? The water molecules have a boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius. Other materials have different boiling point. And due to this difference is water extracted. That boils at a lower temperature, evaporates first. That boils at a higher temperature, will theoretically evaporate when most of the water has evaporated. Mechanical particles contained in the water (including bacteria, viruses and other "animals", as well as colloids and suspended particles) are too heavy to be picked up by a ferry. Simultaneously, almost all dissolved in water, chemicals (including salts of iron and other heavy metal salts and hardness, etc.) reach the limit of their solubility (due to the increased temperature and increased concentration especially - water is constantly evaporates) and precipitated. Thus, together with the steam can "ascend" volatile organic compounds (among which, the truth, and so dangerous as trihalomethanes - a potential carcinogen - and others).
That is why distillers often set filter aftertreatment based on activated carbon from coconut shell.
In the future, steam, cooling (in nature - in the upper atmosphere, in stills - in special capacitors, the simplest of which is a coil) is condensed, again turning into water. This condensate is of the high-purity water, which is called the distillate. Sometimes distilled water to "drive" through Distiller again and get the so-called bi-distillate. Condensate - Distilled water - becomes suitable for the manufacture of medicaments, if it satisfies the specific requirements.Keep distilled water necessarily in closed vessels.
Especially many impurities passes into the distilled water storage (usually alkali glass components). Therefore, try to use distilled water fresh. Keep it in glass bottles that fill up to the top and closed with special stoppers with a calcium chloride tube containing soda lime and cotton. Although pharmaceutical practice water is used as one of the indifferent solvent, which is emphasized in the literature, it should be noted its high chemical reactivity. Thus, the water interacts with a large number of metal and metalloid oxides (in particular, by reaction of water and metal oxides included in the glass due process "leaching" glassware) react with various other compounds.