As much as it may sound trivial, but as vodka and whiskey to 60% water, its quality indicators to a very large extent determined by the composition of water.
It should be noted that no special technology s water treatment for the alcoholic beverage industry does not exist. All used manufacturing operations inherent to any other water treatment plants. Similarly, hardware and technological solutions. Requirements for the composition of the water is much lower than for thermal and nuclear power stations, electronic and medical industries.
The main water treatment difference for the beverage industry, as well as for any food, is a mandatory requirement of the equipment, materials and reagents that are certified for use in food processes.
The only specific requirement for water to vodka, however, as for soft drinks, is its flavor characteristics. Water samples having different chemical composition limits have different tastes. By adjusting the composition, it is possible to achieve a certain flavor of the water and made her a vodka. It does not lose relevance idea of desalination of water, followed by administration of certain salts in it, providing the best tasting vodka performance in its high stability. This approach is widespread in brewing. However, this way, the most expensive.
In most cases, enterprises use city water or its own artesian wells, composed by appropriate water treatment - "Correct" water - brought by limiting to a predetermined component (hardness, iron, organic matter, etc.).
Driving a water treatment depends on the composition of the source water and the manufacturer's requirements. Therefore, technological scheme and composition of such units of equipment can vary significantly.
Getting high-quality juices from concentrate requires the use of water and the definition of a stable structure.
The content of hardness, chlorides, sulfates, the total amount of dissolved salts and alkalinity primarily affect the quality of the beverage.
Alkalinity reduces the acidity of the beverage, requiring increasing amounts of added citric acid. Citric acid consumption is also increased by the concentration exceeding the limits of hardness salts, as calcium and magnesium bicarbonates interact with pectin juice and tannins, forming complex compounds causing turbidity of the beverage. Sulfates and chlorides are involved in the formation of the taste of the beverage. The total amount of dissolved salts not only affects the taste, but also can determine the chemical instability, precipitation, changing the appearance of the beverage.
Juice, completely identical to natural, life can only obtained by diluting the concentrate desalted water. Since its production is quite expensive, it is allowed to use softened water.
In the production of beer, water is the most important raw materials and technological product. It is used in a number of processes, and its flow rate is 13-26 liters per 1 liter of beer. The cations and anions of water affect the pH of the mash, wort and beer, which affects the flow of enzymatic processes in its production. They affect the course of the fermentation, and, ultimately, the taste and stability of beer. Unlike the production of non-alcoholic products in brewing must have hardness. However, if the presence of calcium is possible to limit to 14 mEq / L, the magnesium salts give beer bitterness. High sodium content is also undesirable because it gives a sweet and salty taste. Excess chloride slows the brewing process, and excess sulphate imparts a bitter and dry taste. Great importance is the alkalinity of the water. It should be in the range of 0.5-1.5 mEq / L and be lower than the concentration of calcium salts.
In order to ensure a uniform quality and taste characteristics of beer produced in various places and countries, it is necessary to provide not only identical conditions of its production, but also identical quality malt, hops and of course of the water.
Since it is impossible to selectively remove water from a variety of ions, for example, to remove the magnesium without removing calcium, the only realistic way to meet the above requirements is the complete or partial desalination of water, followed by adjustment of its composition to the desired level.
As described above, desalting may be performed by ion exchange and reverse osmosis. In brewing found use both methods.
In the production of alcohol required heating and cooling equipment, for example by distillation. The output power is produced with recycled water in its cooling towers. Using the raw water pipe leading to the heat exchangers through overgrowing 2 weeks. Carbonate precipitation with iron and bio-organic contaminants have to be drilled.
To stabilize the operation of the equipment can be used diagram including water softening, mixing it with the original to the stiffness was approximately 1 mEq / l, and this proportional dosing water polyphosphates. To ensure a constant supply of water to the system applied softening setting "continuous" action. In this setting, constantly exploited 1 filter and the second regenerated, it is in reserve. After exhausting the first cleaning vessel included a second filter, a first regenerated.
Entering polyphosphate solution is made proportional dosing system. It includes a water meter with pulse output, which gives a signal after each liter of water, a pump dispenser with a controlled amount of feed 1 the momentum and capacity for the storage and preparation of reagent. Reagent consumption was calculated for the selected stiffness, based on a Water stability.