Methods of water purification

  1. Methods by cleaning technology areas:

    • Mechanical cleaning. Such treatment is the most common type of water purification and used in municipal water treatment plants. By using different filter elements are removed from water contamination, such as sand, slag, broken glass, slurries, etc. This type of treatment allows to allocate about 70% of the impurities from the waste water. When mechanical cleaning is used for water purification in homes and apartments, the filter is installed at the entrance to the entire water supply system.
    • Biological cleaning. After mechanical treatment should be biological, which is based on self-purification of natural water bodies. Because microorganisms living in them, mostly bacteria feed on organic waste and mineralize them, thereby reducing the level of contamination of wastewater. To clean use aeration tanks - tanks with a growing number of bacteria.
    • Physico-chemical treatment. This cleaning method uses the coagulation, oxidation, electrolysis, flocculation, evaporation and others. Compared with biological treatment here are some features: a high-quality cleaning, removal of toxic organic contaminants. This method is used for removal of suspended organic and inorganic substances and soluble gases.
    • Chemical cleaning. With such a water purification chemicals are added number (ammonia, lime, soda, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid). They react with water polluting substances that fall in the reaction as an insoluble precipitate. It is used to remove heavy metals from the water, its disinfection and bleaching. Through chemical cleaning insoluble impurities are reduced by about 95%.
  2. Methods by cleaning applications

    • Household methods. Applicable in home filters and purification devices are designed for a relatively small amount of water and the availability of clean technologies. Usually we are talking about clean water flowing from the tap. For country houses where the water comes from wells cleaning will be more complicated. For right choice of equipment is necessary to know the quality of the water source, and the planned volume of funds for the current content.
    • Industrial methods. For water purification on an industrial scale, there are special techniques that do not apply at home. These installations usually have a high cost and high performance. Cost of production of pure water in industrial settings will always be lower than the domestic. Tap water must pass part of the cleaning steps. Mobile, portable methods .
    • For travel. These methods are important in many cases .For example, when water is necessary to obtain in the absence of civilization, Trips, campaign. In an emergency - or if of infrastructure for water delivery was damaged. Portable water purification systems can help receive vital moisture. Often that method used for water purification in disasters.
  3. Water Treatment Technologies

    • Carbon filters.Are used hundreds of years ago for water filtration. To clean the used cartridge with activated charcoal, which normalizes the smell of the water, its taste and color, but does not remove heavy metals. Ion exchange is used to soften hard water and removal of metals and inorganic minerals (nitrates, sulfates, iron, magnesium and calcium), but is not effective at removing bacteria.
    • Ultra Violet filters. UV filter eliminates bacteria and viruses and disinfects water. Of the minuses - the suspended particles and ions are removed. Very good to use this method in combination with others.
    • Microfiltration. Cleaning water from larger deposits such as paint particles, rust, bacteria, and various kinds of sludge. Of the minuses - the fact that the microfiltration very small particles are not removed, so it is used in conjunction with other methods of treatment.
    • Reverse osmosis. RO systems - today is the most advanced water purification technology. When filtering removes most of the pollutants - nitrates, sulfates, pesticides, herbicides, microorganisms, viruses and chemical contaminants. The downside is the small flow rate.
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